- Doren, B., Gau, J. M., & Lindstrom, L. E. (2012). The relationship between parent expectations and postschool outcomes for adolescents with disabilities. Exceptional Children, 79(1), 7-23.
In this article, parent expectations were found to significantly predict study outcomes, suggesting that parent expectations similarly play a role in school and postschool outcomes for adolescents with disabilities.
- Edwards, A., Edwards, L., & Langdon, D. (2013). The mathematical abilities of children with cochlear implants. Child Neuropsychology, 19(2), 127-142.
In this article, the researchers found that children with cochlear implants performed significantly below hearing peers on both arithmetic math problems and geometrical reasoning questions and that this difference between the two groups was mediated by language abilities.
- Goberis, D., Beams, D., Dalpes, M., Abrisch, A., Baca, R., & Yoshinaga-Itano, C. (2012). The missing link in language development of deaf and hard of hearing children: Pragmatic language development. Seminars in Speech and Language, 33(4), 297-309.
In this article, the researchers used the Pragmatics Checklist to gather information about the pragmatic skills of children who are deaf or hard of hearing (DHH) as well as those with normal hearing. When the pragmatic skills of DHH children was compared to those with normal hearing, it was found that DHH children acquired these skills much more slowly, even with targeted intervention strategies.
- Gottardis, L., Nunes, T., & Lunt, I. (2011). A synthesis of research on deaf and hearing children’s mathematical achievement. Deafness and Education International, 13(3), 131-150.
This provides a literature review comparing deaf and hearing children’s performance in mathematics, finding that children with greater than moderate hearing loss experience a delay in mathematical achievement in comparison to hearing peers.
- Humphries, T., Kushalnagar, P., Mathur, G., Napoli, D. J., Padden, C., Rathmann, C., & Smith, S. R. (2012). Language acquisition for deaf children: Reducing the harms of zero tolerance to the use of alternative approaches. Harm Reduction Journal, 9(1), 1-9.
This article discusses the societal and individual harms related to cochlear implant surgery, and the remedies to limit those described harms. The authors believe that no child should be implanted unless there is a strong chance that child will acquire excellent oral communication skills, and that every deaf child should be raised with sign language to avoid the consequences of late first language acquisition.
- Joint Committee on Infant Hearing. (2007). Year 2007 position statement: Principles and guidelines for early hearing detection and intervention programs. Pediatrics, 120, 898-921.
In their 2007 Position Statement, the Joint Committee on Infant Hearing recommends early screenings to detect infant hearing loss followed by early intervention if hearing loss is confirmed.
- Joint Committee on Infant Hearing. (2013). Supplement to the JCIH 2007 position statement: Principles and guidelines for early intervention after confirmation that a child is deaf or hard of hearing. Pediatrics, 131, 1324-1349.
This supplement to the JCIH 2007 position statement provides comprehensive guidelines and goals for early hearing detection and intervention programs. It concludes that their statement advocates for coordinated statewide early intervention programs for children who are deaf and hard of hearing and their families.
- Leybaert, J. (2002). Counting in sign language. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 81(4), 482-501.
Leybaert found that while deaf children acquiring Belgian French Sign Language were behind hearing peers in their knowledge of the number system, they performed as well as hearing peers in object counting and creating sets of a given cardinality.
- Lyness, C. R., Woll, B., Campbell, R., & Cardin, V. (2013). How does visual language affect crossmodal plasticity and cochlear implant success? Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 37(10), 2621-2630.
This provides a literature review that challenges the notion that acquisition of a visual language is correlated with poor cochlear implant outcome. Noting the flaws in animal models used in prior research, they argue that there is no evidence to suggest that the visual takeover of the auditory cortex in deaf individuals is due to visual language, and therefore there is no evidence that visual language should impede cochlear implant success.
- Pagliaro, C., & Karen, L. K. (2012). The math gap: a description of the mathematics performance of preschool-aged deaf/hard-of-hearing children. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 18(2), 139-160.
This study by Pagliaro and Karen (2012) provides evidence that deaf or hard-of-hearing children do not perform as well as hearing children in tests of mathematical knowledge as early as preschool, and therefore may be lacking foundational skills even before formal schooling.
- Pimperton, H., & Kennedy, C. R. (2012). The impact of early identification of permanent childhood hearing impairment on speech and language outcomes. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 97, 648-653.
This review has shown data that exposure to universal newborn hearing screenings and early identification of permanent childhood hearing impairment have been correlated to benefits with language development in deaf children, with consistent verification of relationships of early identification and positive language outcomes.
- Spaepen, E., Coppola, M., Spelke, E. S., Carey, S. E., Goldin-Meadow, S. (2011). Number without a language model. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 108(8), 3163-3168.
These researchers found that when immersed into a language that does not have an exact, established number system, such as deaf individuals who use homesigns, they will be able to gesture small numbers, but will not be able to correctly communicate greater number sets.
- Swanwick, R., Oddy, A., & Roper, T. (2005). Mathematics and deaf children: An exploration of barriers to success. Deafness and Education International, 7(1), 1-21.
Researchers in this study made preliminary findings about deaf children and their successes in certain areas of education. The first noted is the national entry levels for deaf students, and how those levels compared to hearing students. Another finding noted was that the language of mathematics can create problems in certain contexts, given that the links to the important information for the deaf students was difficult and the marks given to them were inconsistent. The deaf students showed greater achievements when they were given step-by-step procedures than application information. The study also looked at the structure of how the mathematics was being presented to the deaf children, given that there are stages of math in which you build upon, and if you do not build up to one level, you cannot move on to the next. This, as well as the lack of specialist teachers of mathematics for the deaf children and the mainstream curriculum that many students face raises insight into the background of how the deaf children are learning, and what kind of instruction and access might be more beneficial to them.
- Szarkowski, A., & Eng, D. F. (2014). High and appropriate expectations for deaf and hard of hearing children: The role of assessment. Odyssey, 15, 1-5.
This article suggests that high expectations significantly correlate to success for deaf and hard of hearing children, especially between the parent and child. Appropriately high expectations held by supportive parents with assessments held in the preferred communication mode or language of the child related to achievement in developmental milestones.
- Thagard, E. K., Hilsmier, A. S., & Easterbrooks, S. R. (2011). Pragmatic language in deaf and hard of hearing students: Correlations with success in general education. American Annals of the Deaf, 155(5), 526-534.
This research found that sociolinguistic pragmatic competence between deaf and hard of hearing students correlated with academic success, independent of the degree of hearing loss or the communication system used. This finding proved that deaf and hard of hearing students could benefit from improved socio-pragmatic training.* Yoshinaga-Itano, C., Baca, R., & Sedey, A. L. (2010). Describing the trajectory of language development in the presence of severe to profound hearing loss: A closer look at children with cochlear implants versus hearing aids. Otology and Neurotology, 31, 1268-1274.
The research found that from ages 4 through 7, both children with hearing loss and children with normal hearing show an equal amount of language growth. It was also found that children with hearing aids tended to deviate away from the trajectory of language growth than those with cochlear implants, stating that the cochlear implants benefitted some children the acceleration of language acquisition, along with other likely factors such as children with better hearing before implantation and children with mothers of higher levels of education.